Past, Present, Future

The NZSIA Adapts To The Future of Snowsports

The NZSIA Alpine Interski Team in Bulgaria 2019 will be made up of seven team members; Sarah Walls, Harry McFadden, Colin Tanner, Josh Duncan-Smith, Dan Bogues, Yusuke Inoue and Jon Gass.

We will be presenting an Indoor and On Snow Clinic.

In the Indoor Session – the presenters will take you through the adapted teaching model that the NZISA has developed to create skillful versatility in our instructor trainees. By prioritising versatile and adaptable teaching skills we will prepare our instructors for the changing global market whilst strengthening our development pathway.

On Snow Clinic – the presenters will give an insight into how the NZSIA train and assess teaching skills in the NZSIA certification patyhway. A new teaching model has been developed to allow more advanced teaching skills to be adopted and brought to life as a trainee instructor progresses through the levels.



Past, Present, Future Teaching Skills – NZSIA On Snow Workshop & Indoor Presentation

Feb 28, 2019

Relevant Resources

The Webpage is designed to back up the on snow workshop presented by the NZSIA in Pamporovo. The info below follows the content of the On Snow Workshop

Feel free to be fully involved in the Workshop if you are present.

You will be able to refer back and share all the information.

We have added further reference material – like videos and further written explanations to the examples given on snow.

Feel free to comment on any of the below…

What to expect in these Presentations

Indoors we will -

On Snow we will -

Our Why

We believe reflection is an integral part of growth. Reflecting on our past and present instructor training beliefs/ practices, we believe we can better prepare our new and existing instructors for the complex snowsports environment ahead. This presentation will describe how and why we have come to modify our teaching model.

The new tangible and retainable model incorporates the current models in our manuals teaching theory (Teaching Model, communication modes, progression building model, teaching styles, learning styles, Kolb’s experiential learning cycle, Fits and Posner learning phases) into a user friendly decision making guide. The model celebrates the learning process allowing the learner to have ownership and progress at their own pace creating a more meaningful learning experience.

The learning phases theory by Fitts & Posner is the cradle of our repackaged teaching model. We hope this adjustment reflects our desire to recognise and empower the natural learning environment between engaged, experimental and enthusiastic participants.

Constantly Revolving

The body of the lesson is constantly revolving through present moment planning, presenting of information, assessment, guidance, adjustment, and checking for understanding.

NZSIA AAA - body of lesson keeps revolving

Current Teaching Model

Diagram of Current NZSIA Teaching Model


Revised Teaching Model

Diagram of NZSIA Revised Teaching Model


Where Have Some Of The Old Steps Gone?

These skills are now part of how the Activity is communicated to the learner. The learner needs to know why they are doing the activity and how it relates to their agreed goals. The Activity needs to be presented with good technical accuracy and well described and shown to the learner. Communication should be clear and concise and delivered in an organised manner.

The instructor will also present information to the learner in the Analysis step. This might be with a description of what happened in the learners’ performance and how their performance compares to the ideal. They should also be made aware of why this happened.

A lot of the skills currently in guiding practice have been utilized in the Advance step. Whether this is how the class will be managed and moved around the mountain. The speed or terrain that is chosen for the next Activity. The exercises used to develop/correct or the choice of the next Activity itself e.g repetition, adjustment (with feedback) or a new/next Activity.

This skill from the previous teaching model is now seen in Activity as well and in Analysis.

During the presentation of the Activity, the instructor will ask questions of the group to check they understand. This is good teaching practice but could also be as a development tool if the previous attempt was unsuccessful and they need to recheck the learners understanding.

Checking for understanding is also achieved during the Analysis step. this is done in two ways. by the instructor observing/watching the learners performance and or by the instructor asking questions to the learner to promote self-analysis.

How Our Old Model Fits Into The New Model.

We have repackaged (lesson plan, presenting information, guided practice, checking for understanding) from the previous model to retain their strength but in an easier to use and more straight forward template to guide good teaching to better facilitating learning.

This change will allow us to bring skier analysis/self-analysis into the heart of our ski teaching. The key to the partnership between the instructor and learner is how they work together to analyse the learners’ performance and to use this knowledge to make better learning decisions as they work towards the desired outcome/goal and move through the phases of learning.

Below you will see how the previous steps have been merged into the new model and adapted so they can be used to better purpose for both the instructor and learner.

Lesson planning
Reflect and this response can be checked against the instructors’ observation.

Phases Of Learning And The Triple A Cycle

Below is an example of how an instructor can adjust their use of the Triple A cycle depending on the stage of learning that their student is in.

Cognitive Phase

Develop understanding of ideal skills


  • Give clear explanations and demonstrations to give student understanding and clarity of what an ideal/successful outcome is.
  • Create a clear awareness of what a successful outcome should feel like.


  • External feedback from instructor is given to create clarity of what happened and how the students performance compared to an ideal outcome.
  • Feedback should not over correct or be too detailed.
  • Praise effort over performance


  • If the student was successful; allow for practice, with trial and error so the student can progress through the associative phase.
  • If the student was unsuccessful; check understanding and let the learner have another attempt. The activity may need to be re-presented or adjusted with a new or altered focus.

Teaching style


Associative Phase

Develop competency of ideal skills


  • Continue to give clear demonstrations of an ideal outcome.
  • Check for understanding of the activity.


  • Feedback may initially come externally from the instructor or a peer
  • As the student progresses through this phase feedback should become more intrinsic.
  • Feedback should be more specific and detailed.


  • Use drills/exercises to promote skill refinement.
  • Increase the activity difficulty and speed to challenge skill.
  • Practice the activity until consistency is found.

Teaching styles

Task/Reciprocal/Guided discovery

Autonomous phase

Develop versatility of ideal skills


  • Create challenges that cause student to adapt and vary their skills in a reactive manner
  • use tasks and terrain to challenge skills
  • Focus on still achieving this activity by introducing different tactical focus’s


  • Analysis of performance is largely made by the student. The instructor is there to give feedback if needed to augment the students intrinsic feedback.
  • Feedback from instructor if needed should be as specific and accurate as possible.


  • Look to change focus and start challenging a new skill or sub skill.
  • Instructors role is to use directed questioning and problem solving to lead student learning.

Teaching styles

Guided Discovery/Problem solving/Individual

* The teaching styles suggested for each phase of learning are just a guide and doesn’t mean these are the only teaching styles that can be used.

Progression Building

Moving through the Triple A cycle and adjusting the activity, feedback given and decisions made will allow the student to move through a step by step progression that is shaped by the phase of learning they are in.

Below is an example of how an instructor using our new adapted teaching model in a real life situation.


The instructor introduces them self to the learners as they arrive at the lesson. The groups’ names are learnt and the group is also introduced to each other.
The learners’ equipment is checked and a positive rapport is created with the group.

Skier Profile

There are three learners in the group, the instructor continues to talks to the learners and some discussion about the learners previous skiing experiences, confidence level and physical condition.

The instructor then Watches the group ski and analysis the groups current skiing ability. The instructor Observes-

Learner 1 is a strong wedge turner that is using turn shape to control speed.
Learner 2 is already parallel at the end of turns to the right but loses balances as it happens.
Learner 3 looks nervous with a larger wedge size where the wedge is controlling the speed.

Negotiate goals

The instructor talks to the learners and they negotiate what the learners’ goals are and through questioning, they decide that the skiers would like to work towards the goal of becoming parallel skiers so they can ski more of the mountain. Learner 2 says they are really keen to see the view from the top of the mountain as well.

The instructor then says that to be able to ski more of the mountain the group needs to learn how to control there speed through their turns on steeper trails. To do this the group needs to learn to become parallel skiers. This goal of working towards becoming parallel skiers is agreed with the group.


For the first Activity, the instructor decides to take a skiing approach to keep the group moving. The group are encouraged to go parallel using the natural forces of skiing. Try skiing with a “smaller wedge”, try skiing a “little faster”. The instructor demonstrates a few turns to the group then leads the group through some turns while they try this.


The instructor decides not to watch/observe the group ski but asked the group if this helped their skis go parallel.


The instructor makes the decision to give the group a clear explanation and demonstration of how to steer the skis parallel for their next activity.


The instructor explains that to become parallel “The inside ski needs to become lighter and flattened so the skis can be rotated parallel” The instructor gives a demonstration of this to the group from above them then continues to ski down the slope and positions them self to watch the group as they ski down.


Learner 1 is starting to go parallel at the end of both of their turns

Learner 2 with a second look the instructor sees that they are allowing their body to lead the skis around the turn. This then causes the loss of lateral balance that had been observed previously as there ski match parallel.

Learner 3 is still making a sharp turn shape where they steer the outside ski at a quicker rate in the initiation which  causes the learners’ wedge to increase in size.


Learner 1 the instructor decides to highlight the change that has happened in their performance and that they  to practice the new turns they have started to make.

Learner 2 is given a rotation awareness drill to aid more discipline rotationally and as a result a more accurate balance towards the outside ski towards the second half of their turns.

Learner 3 is informed of their Sharpe turns shape and to correct it is asked to follow the instructors so they can see and follow a rounder turns shape. They are also encouraged to steer with both skis at the start of the turn.


The instructor explains and shows the drill for learner 2 then lead all three down the slope with learner 3 follow behind and asks learner 2 doing the drill to come last so they can be observed doing the drill and check that they are performing the drill correctly.


Learner 1 is practicing their turns but is not observed by the instructor for this activity.

Learner 2 is performing the drill correctly and is observed as starting to look more actuarially balanced to their outside ski. The instructor informs the Lerner of this.

Learner 3 is starting to make rounder turn where they are steer both ski more together from the start of the turn.


Learner 1 is asked to perform their new found plough parallel turns but with a little more speed to help their skis become parallel earlier in their turns by using the forces generated by skiing faster.

Learner 2 it’s agreed that they will practice the drill more to consolidate the change it’s making.

Learner 3 after some discussion the learner wants to follow the instructor again but is asked to count how long there skis are steered for in each turn.


The instructor leads the group again but tells learner 1 to wait for 4 turns before starting so they can try skiing a little faster as agreed.


It is observed that learner 3 staying in the instructors tracks once again and is starting to look more confident about making rounder turns. The instructor asks how long they had to count for in each turn. The learner relied 4 second.


The instructor decides to set up a meeting point for the next Activity so the group can practice with and the instructor can observe the group skiing while making their own turn. The instructor encourages learner 3 to continue to count to 4 each turn.


A meeting point is agreed and the learners ski down to the meeting point leaving 3 turns between each of them as agreed.


Learner 1 is observed matching their skis earlier in the turn.

Learner 2 is performing the drill well and looking more balanced

Learner 3 is making rounder turns where the plough remains a more even size from turn to turn.


The instructor informs the group of the changes they have made and takes the decision to continue to practice with the group following behind. Learner 2 is asked whether they want to continue with the drill and the learner decides to try skiing without the drill to see if they out this change into their own skiing.




The instructor review the lesson and highlights the changes the Lerner has made during it. They offers advice on what and where to continue practice and the groups current skill level.

Summary & Take Aways